Dyslexia is a learning disability that makes it hard to learn to read and understand written language. Even students with average or above-average intelligence can have dyslexia.
A common assumption about dyslexia is that letters or words seem reversed, like the word "was" appearing like "saw." This can be a part of dyslexia, but reversals are very common among kids up until first or second grade. The major problems for students with dyslexia are phonemic awareness, phonics, and rapid word recognition.
Dyslexia is not a visual problem. Dyslexia happens because of subtle problems in information processing, especially in the language regions of the brain.
Dyslexia often runs in families. A reading specialist or psychologist can diagnose dyslexia through a comprehensive evaluation.
A child with dyslexia may have trouble:
learning to talk
pronouncing longer words
learning the alphabet, days of the week, colors, shapes, and numbers
learning to identify syllables (cow/boy in cowboy) and phonemes (b, a, t in bat)
sounding out simple words
reading and spelling words with the correct letter sequence ("top" vs. "pot")
learning to read and write his or her name
with handwriting and other fine-motor coordination
Students with dyslexia may need:
specialized instruction and special arrangements for tests
extra time for tests, homework, and taking notes in class
What Teachers Can Do
Students with dyslexia may avoid reading because it can be stressful and tiring. As a result, they can end up missing valuable reading practice and fall behind their classmates. This can hurt their self-esteem. Recognizing and appreciating their strengths — in math, sports, drama, art, creative problem solving, etc. — can provide critical emotional support.
Other helpful strategies for students with dyslexia are:
providing extra time to practice reading
connecting them with trained tutors
giving reading assignments in audio formats
offering customized learning aids and computer software
With the proper assistance, most students with dyslexia can learn to read and develop strategies that allow them to stay in regular classrooms.