What Is Tourette Syndrome?
Tourette syndrome is a disorder that affects the body's brain and nervous system by causing tics — sudden, repetitive movements or sounds that some people make, seemingly without realizing it. A person with Tourette syndrome has multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic.
Tics are fairly common in teens. You may know someone who has either a motor tic (sudden, uncontrollable movements like exaggerated blinking of the eyes) or a vocal tic (sounds such as throat clearing, grunting, or humming).
What Causes Tourette Syndrome?
Tourette syndrome is a genetic disorder, which means it's the result of a change in genes that's either inherited (passed on from parent to child) or happens during development in the womb.
The exact cause of Tourette syndrome isn't known, but some research suggests that it happens when there's a problem with how nerves communicate in certain areas of the brain. An upset in the balance of neurotransmitters (chemicals in the brain that carry nerve signals from cell to cell) might play a role.
People with Tourette syndrome usually first notice symptoms while they're kids or teens. The condition affects people of all races and backgrounds, although more guys than girls have the condition.
Tourette syndrome is not contagious. You can't catch it from someone who has it.
What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Tourette Syndrome?
The main symptoms of Tourette syndrome are tics — multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic. Motor tics can be everything from eye blinking or grimacing to head jerking or foot stomping. Some examples of vocal tics are throat clearing, making clicking sounds, repeated sniffing, yelping, or shouting. In rare cases, people might have a tic that makes them harm themselves, such as head banging.
At certain times, like when someone is under stress, the tics can become more severe, happen more often, or last longer. Or the type of tic may change.
Some people may be able to suppress their tics for a short time. But tension builds, and eventually it must be released as a tic. And if a person is concentrating on controlling the tic, it may be hard to focus on anything else. This can make it hard for teens with Tourette syndrome to have a conversation or pay attention in class.
How Is Tourette Syndrome Diagnosed?
Tics should be checked out by a doctor. Some family doctors may refer a person with Tourette symptoms to neurologist (a doctor who specializes in problems with the nervous system). The neurologist may ask the person to keep track of the kinds of tics involved and how often they happen.
To be diagnosed with Tourette syndrome, a person must have several different types of tics — specifically, multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic for at least a year. They may happen every day or from time to time throughout the year.
There isn't a specific test for Tourette syndrome. Instead, the doctor looks at the family history, the medical history, and the person's symptoms to make a diagnosis. Sometimes, imaging tests like magnetic resonance imaging tests (MRIs), computerized tomography (CT) scans, electroencephalograms (EEGs), or blood tests can rule out other conditions that might cause symptoms similar to TS.
How Is Tourette Syndrome Treated?
Just as Tourette syndrome is different for every person, treatment can be different too. While there isn't a cure for Tourette syndrome, most tics don't get in the way of day-to-day life. If they do, doctors may suggest medicines to help control symptoms.
Tourette syndrome is not a psychological condition, but doctors sometimes refer teens to a psychologist or psychiatrist. Seeing a therapist won't stop their tics, but it can help to talk to someone about their problems, cope with stress better, and learn relaxation techniques. A therapist also can help them with any other problems, like ADHD, OCD, and/or anxiety.
Dealing With Tourette Syndrome
Many people don't understand what Tourette syndrome is or what causes it, so they might not know what to make of someone who has it. And if people stare, it can feel embarrassing or frustrating. Someone who has it might have to explain their condition a lot or have to deal with people thinking they're strange.
Although it's not easy to have Tourette syndrome, there's good news — the tics usually get milder or go away during adulthood. In the meantime, it can help to focus on something else.
Things that someone with Tourette syndrome can do include:
- Get involved. Some people say that when they're focused on an activity, their tics are milder and less frequent. Sports, exercise, or hobbies are great ways to focus mental and physical energy.
- Lend a helping hand. Dealing with Tourette syndrome often makes people more understanding of other people's feelings, especially other teens with problems. Use that special sensitivity by volunteering.
- Embrace creativity. Creative activities such as writing, painting, or making music help focus the mind on other things.
- Find support. The Tourette Syndrome Association sponsors support groups with others who understand the condition's challenges.
- Take control. People with Tourette syndrome can feel more in control of their lives by researching, asking their doctors plenty of questions, and taking an active role in their treatment.
Each person with Tourette syndrome will cope differently with its physical, emotional, and social challenges. Tourette syndrome doesn't usually restrict activities, so people who have it can enjoy themselves and pursue their dreams and goals just as their friends do.
Note: All information is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor.
© 1995- KidsHealth® All rights reserved.
Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Veer, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com.